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Note: This article is for informational purposes only and does not serve as legal advice. It is essential to consult with professionals or relevant authorities for specific legal concerns.


Private investigators play a vital role in various sectors, from corporate investigations to personal matters, providing valuable information and uncovering facts that might otherwise remain hidden. However, questions often arise regarding the legality of their actions. In this blog post, we aim to shed light on what private investigators can legally do in Australia, exploring the powers they possess, the limitations they face, and the regulatory framework they operate within.

Understanding the Role of Private Investigators in Australia

Private investigators, also commonly referred to as private detectives, are individuals who undertake investigative work for clients. Unlike law enforcement professionals, private investigators are hired by individuals, businesses, or legal entities and operate independently from government agencies. They handle a wide range of cases, including conducting background checks, surveillance, fraud investigations, skip tracing, and gathering evidence for legal proceedings.

Licensing and Regulatory Framework

In Australia, private investigators are required to obtain a license to operate legally. The licensing process ensures that individuals working in this profession have the necessary qualifications, experience, and integrity to carry out their duties properly. The specific licensing requirements may vary slightly between states and territories, but they generally include:

  1. Fulfilling the Eligibility Criteria:
    • Being at least 18 years old
    • Holding Australian citizenship or the appropriate visa
    • Having not been convicted of serious offenses
  2. Undergoing Relevant Training:
    • Completing a recognized training course or program focused on private investigation skills and knowledge
    • Gaining a comprehensive understanding of legal obligations, privacy laws, surveillance techniques, ethics, and report writing
  3. Background Checks:
    • Undergoing thorough background checks, including criminal history records and character assessments
  4. Licensing Bodies:
    • Each state or territory has a specific licensing body responsible for issuing and regulating private investigator licenses, such as the Victoria Police Licensing Services Division, the New South Wales Police Force, or the Office of Fair Trading in Queensland.

Powers and Authorities of Private Investigators

Once appropriately licensed, private investigators in Australia have certain powers and authorities within the confines of the law. Below, we discuss some of the primary tasks and activities they can engage in:

Surveillance and Observations

Surveillance is an integral part of private investigation work, often involving the discreet monitoring and recording of individuals’ activities. Private investigators can conduct surveillance legally, provided they operate within the boundaries set by law. These boundaries primarily revolve around privacy laws and ethical considerations. Surveillance activities typically require:

  1. Obtaining Consent:
    • Private investigators must obtain informed consent from their clients to proceed with surveillance activities on their behalf.
  2. Public Locations:
    • Surveillance is generally permissible in public locations, where individuals have a lower expectation of privacy.
  3. Legitimate and Lawful Purpose:
    • Surveillance must serve a legitimate purpose, such as gathering evidence for legal proceedings or uncovering fraud or illicit activities.
  4. Adhering to Legal Boundaries:
    • Private investigators must ensure they do not cross legal boundaries, including limitations on trespassing, illegal wiretapping, and invasions of privacy.
  5. Ethical Considerations:
    • Ethical guidelines dictate that investigators must balance the need for information with respecting the privacy and dignity of the individuals under observation.

Background Checks and Information Gathering

Another crucial aspect of private investigation work is conducting background checks and gathering information. Private investigators can legally access various sources to obtain relevant information, including:

  1. Public Records:
    • Accessing public records, such as court documents, property records, and business registrations.
  2. Online Databases:
    • Utilizing publicly available online databases to collect information.
  3. Interviews and Witness Statements:
    • Interviewing relevant parties and obtaining witness statements, with the consent of the individuals involved.
  4. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT):
    • Collecting data from publicly available sources, such as social media platforms or public websites.
  5. Ethical Considerations:
    • Private investigators must ensure they do not obtain information through illegal means, such as hacking or social engineering.

Undercover Operations and Infiltration

In certain investigative scenarios, private investigators may engage in undercover operations or infiltration to gather evidence. However, these methods have strict limitations and legal implications. When conducting undercover work, investigators must consider the following:

  1. Legitimate Purpose:
    • Undercover operations must serve a legitimate and legal purpose, such as exposing criminal activities or gathering evidence for legal proceedings.
  2. Lawful Methods:
    • Investigators must follow the law and avoid engaging in criminal conduct during undercover operations.
  3. Informed Consent:
    • In scenarios involving deception, investigators should exercise caution and ensure they have obtained proper and informed consent.
  4. Legal Boundaries:
    • Private investigators must not exceed legal boundaries, respecting individuals’ rights and avoiding entrapment or infringement on privacy rights.

Limitations and Prohibited Activities

While private investigators possess certain powers and authorities, they also face limitations and prohibitions. It is crucial to understand these limitations to avoid engaging in illegal activities or violating ethical boundaries. Some activities that private investigators are generally prohibited from include but are not limited to:

  • Hacking into computer systems or unauthorized access to personal information
  • Trespassing onto private property without permission
  • Intercepting communications without lawful authority
  • Engaging in activities that constitute invasion of privacy, such as installing unauthorized tracking devices or eavesdropping without proper legal authorization

Engaging in any of the above activities can have severe legal consequences, including civil liability, criminal charges, and potential loss of professional licenses.

Client Confidentiality and Privacy

Maintaining client confidentiality and privacy is of utmost importance in the private investigation field. Private investigators have a legal and ethical obligation to protect the privacy of their clients. The information gathered during investigations should remain confidential and only be disclosed with the explicit consent of the clients or as required by law.

It is essential to hire licensed and reputable private investigators who prioritize client confidentiality and follow ethical guidelines. Before engaging their services, clients should conduct thorough research and verify their credentials, experience, and track record.


Private investigators in Australia play a crucial role in various areas of investigation. While their powers and authorities are not as extensive as those of law enforcement agencies, licensed private investigators possess the legal framework to conduct investigations and gather information meticulously. By adhering to ethical guidelines, respecting privacy laws, and always operating within legal boundaries, private investigators can continue to provide valuable services while maintaining the highest professional standards.

If you are considering hiring a private investigator in Australia, it is essential to ensure that they are licensed and well-versed in the relevant regulations and ethical considerations.


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